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The Surface antigen Family [Function: Adhesion] Seed alignment | Full alignment | Pfam page | TC-DB page

This family includes a number of bacterial surface antigens expressed on the surface of intracellular endosymbiotic pathogens belonging to various species of Rickettsiales, such as Anaplasma, Wolbachia and Ehrlichia. It is a diverse family, believed to consist of adhesins. The WSP protein of Wolbachia, the P28 antigen of Ehrlichia and the P44 antigen of Anaplasma are well-studied examples of such proteins. Wolbachia can reduce the capability of mosquitoes to transmit infectious diseases to humans and is currently exploited in campaigns for the control of arboviruses, like dengue and Zika.The WSP protein of Wolbachia induced activation of the host immune response in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, and inhibited the development of the heartworm parasite Dirofilaria immitis in Aedes aegypti.The Ehrlichia P28 outer membrane proteins exhibit differential roles in protective immunity against Ehrlichia.P44 has been shown to possess porin activity.

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Literature references

Insight of diagnostic performance using B-cell epitope antigens derived from triple P44-related proteins of Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Oct;95(2):125-130. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2019.05.008. Epub 2019 May 18.
PMID: 31182246

Intracellular Pathogens: Host Immunity and Microbial Persistence Strategies
J Immunol Res. 2019 Apr 14;2019:1356540. doi: 10.1155/2019/1356540. eCollection 2019.
PMID: 31111075

Predominant Shift of Different P44-Expressing Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Infected HL-60, THP-1, NB4, and RF/6A Cell Lines
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2019 Mar 25;72(2):73-80. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2018.230. Epub 2018 Oct 31.
PMID: 30381676

Serologic responses to peptides of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs infested with wild-caught Ixodes scapularis
Vet J. 2017 Aug;226:6-11. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2017.06.005. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
PMID: 28911844

Molecular characterization of Msp2/P44 of Anaplasma phagocytophilum isolated from infected patients and Haemaphysalis longicornis in Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province, China
PLoS One. 2013 Oct 22;8(10):e78189. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078189. eCollection 2013.
PMID: 24167608

Wolbachia surface protein induces innate immune responses in mosquito cells
BMC Microbiol. 2012 Jan 18;12 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S11. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-S1-S11.
PMID: 22375833

Comparative analysis of Wolbachia surface protein in D. melanoagster, A. tabida and B. malayi
Bioinformation. 2012;8(15):711-5. doi: 10.6026/97320630008711. Epub 2012 Aug 3.
PMID: 23055615

Immunization with Ehrlichia P28 outer membrane proteins confers protection in a mouse model of ehrlichiosis
Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Dec;18(12):2018-25. doi: 10.1128/CVI.05292-11. Epub 2011 Oct 26.
PMID: 22030371

Evolution of antigen variation in the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Mol Biol Evol. 2012 Jan;29(1):391-400. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msr229. Epub 2011 Sep 28.
PMID: 21965342

Structure-based vaccines provide protection in a mouse model of ehrlichiosis
PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e27981. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027981. Epub 2011 Nov 17.
PMID: 22114733

Evaluation of peptide- and recombinant protein-based assays for detection of anti-Ehrlichia ewingii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected dogs. [corrected]
Am J Vet Res. 2010 Oct;71(10):1195-200. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.71.10.1195.
PMID: 20919906

Anaplasma phagocytophilum MSP2(P44)-18 predominates and is modified into multiple isoforms in human myeloid cells
Infect Immun. 2008 May;76(5):2090-8. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01594-07. Epub 2008 Feb 19.
PMID: 18285495

Porin activity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum outer membrane fraction and purified P44
J Bacteriol. 2007 Mar;189(5):1998-2006. doi: 10.1128/JB.01548-06. Epub 2006 Dec 15.
PMID: 17172334

Mosaic nature of the wolbachia surface protein
J Bacteriol. 2005 Aug;187(15):5406-18. doi: 10.1128/JB.187.15.5406-5418.2005.
PMID: 16030235

Expression of members of the 28-kilodalton major outer membrane protein family of Ehrlichia chaffeensis during persistent infection
Infect Immun. 2004 Aug;72(8):4336-43. doi: 10.1128/IAI.72.8.4336-4343.2004.
PMID: 15271888

Characterization of a major outer membrane protein multigene family in Ehrlichia ruminantium
Gene. 2004 Apr 14;330:159-68. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2004.01.020.
PMID: 15087135

Cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the major surface protein of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis
J Bacteriol. 1998 May;180(9):2373-8. doi: 10.1128/JB.180.9.2373-2378.1998.
PMID: 9573188

Derivation of the complete msp4 gene sequence of Anaplasma marginale without cloning
Gene. 1993 Dec 22;136(1-2):291-4. doi: 10.1016/0378-1119(93)90482-i.
PMID: 8294020

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