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The Enterobacterial Ail/Lom protein Family [Function: Adhesion] Seed alignment | Full alignment | Pfam page | Pfam Wiki page | TC-DB page

This family consists of several bacterial and phage virulence-related outer membrane proteins which are essential for the bacterial survival within macrophages and for eukaryotic cell invasion. These proteins consist of 8 transmembrane ß sheets and 4 cell surface-exposed mobile loops, as suggested by the structure of OmpX of Escherichia coli. The Ail protein of Yersinia enterocolitica is also a known virulence factor. It is thought that it directly promotes invasion and loop 2 contains an active site, perhaps a receptor-binding domain. The phage protein Lom is expressed during lysogeny and encodes host-cell envelope proteins. PagC of Salmonella typhimurium is required for survival in macrophages and for virulence in mice.

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Literature references

Correlating the Structure and Activity of Y. pestis Ail in a Bacterial Cell Envelope
Biophys J. 2021 Feb 2;120(3):453-462. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2020.12.015. Epub 2020 Dec 24.
PMID: 33359463

Identification of novel fibronectin-binding proteins by 2D-far Western blot in atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotype O55:H7
Microb Pathog. 2021 Jan;150:104682. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104682. Epub 2020 Dec 6.
PMID: 33296715

Comparison of Humoral Immune Responses to Different Forms of Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum Biovar Gallinarum
Front Vet Sci. 2020 Nov 6;7:598610. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.598610. eCollection 2020.
PMID: 33240965

Cleavage of the outer membrane protein OmpX by protealysin regulates Serratia proteamaculans invasion
FEBS Lett. 2020 Oct;594(19):3095-3107. doi: 10.1002/1873-3468.13897. Epub 2020 Aug 14.
PMID: 32748449

Mutually constructive roles of Ail and LPS in Yersinia pestis serum survival
Mol Microbiol. 2020 Sep;114(3):510-520. doi: 10.1111/mmi.14530. Epub 2020 Jun 25.
PMID: 32462782

PagC is involved in salmonella pullorum OMVs production and affects biofilm production
Vet Microbiol. 2020 Aug;247:108778. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108778. Epub 2020 Jun 23.
PMID: 32768224

Detergent Titration as an Efficient Method for NMR Resonance Assignments of Membrane Proteins in Lipid-Bilayer Nanodiscs
Anal Chem. 2020 Jun 2;92(11):7786-7793. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00917. Epub 2020 May 20.
PMID: 32378880

Invasiveness of the Yersinia pestis ail protein contributes to host dissemination in pneumonic and oral plague
Microb Pathog. 2020 Apr;141:103993. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2020.103993. Epub 2020 Jan 24.
PMID: 31988008

Exploring Lipid and Membrane Protein Dynamics Using Lipid-Bilayer Nanodiscs and Solution-State NMR Spectroscopy
Methods Mol Biol. 2020;2127:397-419. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0373-4_25.
PMID: 32112335

Single-residue physicochemical characteristics kinetically partition membrane protein self-assembly and aggregation
J Biol Chem. 2020 Jan 31;295(5):1181-1194. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.011342. Epub 2019 Dec 16.
PMID: 31844019

Reversible folding energetics of Yersinia Ail barrel reveals a hyperfluorescent intermediate
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2020 Feb 1;1862(2):183097. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2019.183097. Epub 2019 Oct 28.
PMID: 31672545

Disulfide-Containing Detergents (DCDs) for the Structural Biology of Membrane Proteins
Chemistry. 2019 Sep 6;25(50):11635-11640. doi: 10.1002/chem.201903190. Epub 2019 Aug 13.
PMID: 31368214

The electrostatic core of the outer membrane protein X from E. coli
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2020 Jan 1;1862(1):183031. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2019.183031. Epub 2019 Jul 30.
PMID: 31374213

Outer Membrane Proteins OmpA, FhuA, OmpF, EstA, BtuB, and OmpX Have Unique Lipopolysaccharide Fingerprints
J Chem Theory Comput. 2019 Apr 9;15(4):2608-2619. doi: 10.1021/acs.jctc.8b01059. Epub 2019 Mar 21.
PMID: 30848905

Two-State Folding of the Outer Membrane Protein X into a Lipid Bilayer Membrane
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2019 Feb 25;58(9):2665-2669. doi: 10.1002/anie.201812321. Epub 2019 Jan 29.
PMID: 30633426

Folding Determinants of Transmembrane ß-Barrels Using Engineered OMP Chimeras
Biochemistry. 2018 Apr 3;57(13):1987-1996. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.8b00012. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
PMID: 29537829

Structural Insights into the Yersinia pestis Outer Membrane Protein Ail in Lipid Bilayers
J Phys Chem B. 2017 Aug 17;121(32):7561-7570. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b03941. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
PMID: 28726410

Monitoring Backbone Hydrogen-Bond Formation in ß-Barrel Membrane Protein Folding
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2016 May 10;55(20):5952-5. doi: 10.1002/anie.201509910. Epub 2016 Apr 9.
PMID: 27062600

Ail and PagC-related proteins in the entomopathogenic bacteria of Photorhabdus genus
PLoS One. 2014 Oct 15;9(10):e110060. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110060. eCollection 2014.
PMID: 25333642

Structural insights into Ail-mediated adhesion in Yersinia pestis
Structure. 2011 Nov 9;19(11):1672-82. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2011.08.010.
PMID: 22078566

Membrane protein dynamics in different environments: simulation study of the outer membrane protein X in a lipid bilayer and in a micelle
Eur Biophys J. 2011 Jan;40(1):39-58. doi: 10.1007/s00249-010-0626-7. Epub 2010 Oct 5.
PMID: 20922370

Biogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium membrane vesicles provoked by induction of PagC
J Bacteriol. 2010 Nov;192(21):5645-56. doi: 10.1128/JB.00590-10. Epub 2010 Aug 27.
PMID: 20802043

Role of YadA, Ail, and Lipopolysaccharide in Serum Resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica Serotype O:3
Infect Immun. 2005 Apr;73(4):2232-44. doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.4.2232-2244.2005.
PMID: 15784567

NMR structure of the integral membrane protein OmpX
J Mol Biol. 2004 Mar 5;336(5):1211-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2003.09.014.
PMID: 15037080

Transverse relaxation-optimized NMR spectroscopy with the outer membrane protein OmpX in dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine micelles
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Feb 27;98(5):2358-63. doi: 10.1073/pnas.051629298. Epub 2001 Feb 20.
PMID: 11226244

The structure of the outer membrane protein OmpX from Escherichia coli reveals possible mechanisms of virulence
Structure. 1999 Oct 15;7(10):1301-9. doi: 10.1016/s0969-2126(00)80063-5.
PMID: 10545325

PhoP/PhoQ: macrophage-specific modulators of Salmonella virulence?
Mol Microbiol. 1991 Sep;5(9):2073-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1991.tb02135.x.
PMID: 1766380

A Salmonella typhimurium virulence protein is similar to a Yersinia enterocolitica invasion protein and a bacteriophage lambda outer membrane protein
J Bacteriol. 1991 Jan;173(1):86-93. doi: 10.1128/jb.173.1.86-93.1991.
PMID: 1846140

Nucleotide sequence of the Yersinia enterocolitica ail gene and characterization of the Ail protein product
J Bacteriol. 1990 Feb;172(2):1062-9. doi: 10.1128/jb.172.2.1062-1069.1990.
PMID: 1688838

Proteins in this family with 3D-structure
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